When buying a powerful household appliance, the question of its installation and connection inevitably arises. You can, of course, trust the master, but connecting the oven can be quite expensive, although if there is wiring, the work is quite simple. It is enough to plug it into the socket, install it in place, screw it to the ends of the kitchen cabinet – that’s all the connection of the oven cabinet. And if you have to pull the wiring, the cost of the master’s work increases many times. Therefore, many people think about doing everything themselves.
Connecting the oven with your own hands requires knowledge of some rules – we will tell you about everything in sequence. Thinking about the nuances, the first thing to do is to assess the condition of the current wiring and find out about its cross section. If the wiring was laid recently, done according to all the rules, a 2.5 mm cable goes to the socket group and a 16 A fuse (or more) is installed, you can connect any oven using a power cord, plug and socket. Everything is really simple, but there are disadvantages:
- During the operation of the oven, it is impossible to include any powerful equipment in the same outlet group, the automatic fuse will blow.
- You will have to periodically change the fused sockets, since they will be affected by the long-term transmission of significant currents.
If you agree with this, connecting the oven is really very simple: installed, secured, switched on.
It is undesirable to connect a solid load to old wires, but if the condition of the wiring is normal, it is three-wire with grounding, it is possible.
To check the condition of the insulation, measure the insulation resistance of the wires. This is done using a megohmmeter. According to the norms – at least 0.5 MΩ – the oven can be connected. One important point: the cross-section of the wire must be at least 2.5 mm 2 (copper), and a fuse of the appropriate rating (16 A) is installed.
Cross section of the cable cores and fuse rating
If you have to pull a new line, first you need to determine the cross section of the cable cores. On average, the maximum power of ovens is 3-3.8 kW. But these are peak loads, in which the equipment works very rarely. In normal mode, consumption is rarely more than 2 kW.
However, it is correct to calculate wiring precisely for maximum consumption. For cables with copper cores, the recommended cross-section is 2.5 mm2, the machine is 16 A. This has a solid margin of power (recommended load up to 5.9 kW), but these are the recommendations of almost all manufacturers and only under such conditions do they retain their warranty obligations.
Another aspect: all modern household appliances are designed for grounding. Therefore, three-core cables are used – 3*2.5. Only when choosing, measure the diameter of the wire and calculate the cross section. Too many manufacturers began to make the cores thinner than stated in order to save money. Therefore, control is mandatory.
When installing more powerful ovens – with built-in steam generators – it is recommended to use cables with a wire cross section of 4 mm2. A 25 A fuse is placed on the line.
In general, the connection of the oven to electricity with recommendations for the cable used and the ratings of protective devices (fuses) is described in detail in the equipment passport. And it is better to listen to the manufacturer’s recommendations. They are not interested in the breakdown of their own products and issue recommendations with a margin of safety.
Ways of wiring
In general, it is customary to lay the wiring secretly – in plaster or strobes. But this is difficult and destructive work that leaves visible traces. It is good if it can be easily fixed by repasting the wallpaper or repainting the walls. If not, you will have to use other methods of laying the cable.
The first way is to lay in cable channels. These are plastic or metal boxes in which cables are placed. They are screwed to the walls and have removable covers. The aesthetics of such a decision is controversial. In some cases, simply running the cable attracts less attention. Another thing is that on combustible bases (wooden walls or ceilings), the cable must be pulled in a corrugation, and this is definitely noticeable. In general, the option is possible, but not very beautiful.
The second way is to extend the line in special plinths. They are higher and wider than usual, but the wire can be pulled secretly, it is protected from mechanical damage, and the aesthetics of this solution are at a height. In addition, it is performed easily, without dust and special problems.
Connecting the oven to electricity: options
There are several ways to connect the oven to the electrical network:
- Through the power cord connected to the outlet of the oven. It can be connected: to an outlet of the required power (the cord must have a suitable plug); on the fuse installed near a separate plastic box (cord without a plug); to the terminal block fixed on the wall near the equipment (fuse on the shield).
- Connection without a cord, directly to the line coming from the electrical panel (the fuse is installed on the panel).
Some plant manufacturers install network cords. They are connected to the terminal block located on the rear panel. This cord can be removed. This does not affect the warranty. Instead, a cord coming directly from the shield or from a machine installed near the equipment is connected to the corresponding terminals. The second option is used if several devices are connected to one powerful line. In this case, one powerful wire, say, with a cross section of 6 mm2, is pulled to the kitchen. It is brought into a small box, two or more machines are installed in it (according to the number of connected equipment) and lines are already drawn from them to the equipment.
Choosing a place for an outlet
If you are going to connect the oven through an outlet installed on a dedicated line, the question immediately arises: where should it be installed. Here is the problem. In this case, the socket and the plug are put under pressure, and their appearance is, to put it mildly, not very pleasant, and placing them above the work surface is unaesthetic. Therefore, they are looking for a hidden installation method. This is where the problem arises: you need to find a place where it is easy to turn on/off the equipment and it is safe (exclude the possibility of water, dust, dirt, mechanical damage). There are several options for solving the problem:
- If the kitchen set has a plinth, install the outlet behind the oven, a few centimeters above the floor level. Not the best option. There are many disadvantages. The first is difficult access. To turn off/on the oven from the network, you have to almost lie on the floor, pushing your hand against the wall. The second is a high probability of contamination. Grease and dirt accumulate in the kitchen, even under the furniture. They will definitely be on the outlet, which worsens contact and reduces electrical safety.
- If there is a free space between the upper panel of the oven and the worktop, it can be used to install sockets. The “so-so” option from the point of view of connection availability – to turn on/off from the network, you need to raise the cooking surface. If you need to connect an independent oven, this option is not suitable at all.
- Install the outlet behind the oven at a level of 50-80 cm from the floor. Paired with a long cord (at least 120 cm), it can be extended and turned off. This is exactly what Bosch recommends. But this option is more than controversial. If you take into account that the oven is fixed with bolts to the side walls of the cabinet, disconnecting the electricity will be another quest.
- Install the outlet in the area of the adjacent cabinet, cutting a hole in the back wall. The method is not bad, the access is normal, everything is also not bad with security. The only downside is that lockers are not always nearby. It happens that it is a refrigerator or other equipment.
A few words about the choice of socket and plug. If you put a fuse for 16 A, you should put electrical devices with the same rating. This guarantees long-term and trouble-free operation without burning contacts and melting the case.
Installation of the terminal block
Connecting household appliances through a terminal block is considered more reliable. The contact here is provided by clamping screws, which is more reliable than connecting through a plug and socket. The disadvantage of such a connection is the relative difficulty of opening the circuit. You will have to remove the cover, unscrew the bolts that hold the wires, pull them out. Therefore, this method is used only if there is an automatic circuit breaker on the line. Moreover, it is desirable that it be bipolar and break both the phase and the neutral at once.
In the terminal blocks of the “old” model – carbolite – the contacts are open, it is better to install such a block in a small box. In order not to overpay for a box, you can use a standard soldering box. A three-pin block is perfect for a square one. If you need to connect the oven to a three-phase network, you will need to put an oblong model under the five-pin block.
The box can be fixed on the surface of the wall. This option is suitable if the wiring is pulled after repair. If the cable is laid in the gate, it makes sense to sink the box into the wall.
When connecting, it will be necessary to insert the stripped wires under the metal plates, tighten the contact with clamping bolts (screwdriver). At the same time, it is necessary to make a decent effort – so that the contact is good. Please note that the wires cannot be mixed up during connection. The phase wire from the oven should be opposite the phase wire coming from the shield, neutral (zero) – strictly opposite zero, earth – opposite the ground. It is important. Be attentive.
Connecting the cable/cord to the oven
Connecting the oven often involves the need to connect a cable or cord. For these purposes, there is a terminal block on the back wall of the case. It is covered with a lid. The cover can be metal or plastic, held on by latches or screws. Different manufacturers have different options, but it is impossible to make a mistake – there is nothing else.
To the network 220 V
First, remove the cover. Under it, we see terminals with multi-colored wires connected on one side. If you are going to connect the oven to a 220 V network, there will be much more terminals than wires. Some are connected by jumpers. They must be installed, but can be checked. In general, the jumper installation scheme must be on the case. It can be pressed or drawn.
For a single-phase 220 V network, three jumpers must be installed. Two connecting phases – the first, second and third outputs. And one stands between the fourth and fifth.
The wire from the cable/cord is connected as follows:
- To the third phase.
- To the fifth – neutral. Blue or blue wire.
- To zero (perhaps before the first or after the fifth) – grounding. With a yellow-green color.
The connection should be exactly in this sequence. Then you need to connect the wires to the three-pin plug as follows: on the upper pin – yellow-green, on the right – phase, on the left – zero (blue).
To the network 380 V
When connecting to a three-phase network, only one jumper remains – on the fourth and fifth terminals.