A dishwasher is not as complicated a machine as it seems at first glance. Most breakdowns have simple causes. Their elimination does not require high qualifications or special knowledge. If the equipment is no longer under warranty, you can try to repair it yourself. The main malfunctions and what to do if the dishwasher does not work are described below. Most often, the causes and methods of elimination do not depend on the brand of the machine. Bosch, Siemens, Sumsung, Electrolux, Miele, Indesit, Candy, Beko – it doesn’t matter. The repair is the same. The process of disassembly, fastening, etc. may differ. But the basic principles of finding causes and troubleshooting dishwashers are the same.
How a dishwasher works
In order to repair a dishwasher, it is necessary to represent the processes that take place in it. This is the only way to determine possible causes of breakdowns and eliminate them as soon as possible.
We will describe the general principle of operation of the dishwasher. The work algorithm is usually the same for all manufacturers, although some changes may occur. Next, we will describe the longest process in terms of time – washing dirty dishes with time to “discard” food residues.
- After loading dishes, the door closes. This is fixed by a special sensor. If the lock is not closed, the dishwasher will not start.
- The user selects the operating mode of the dishwasher, presses the “Start” button.
- The water intake valve opens, it is pumped into a special tank. Along the way, it is combined with softening salts and detergent. The water level is monitored by appropriate sensors.
- Heating elements – TENs – are installed in the tank. They heat the water to the desired temperature (depending on the selected mode). The degree of heating is controlled by a temperature sensor. The process continues only if the sensor has worked.
- Heated water is supplied by a circulation pump to the nozzles located on the side surfaces, and is sprayed in small portions. This is the soaking mode.
- The liquid flowing from the dishes is collected in a tray, passes through filters, and is again fed to the nozzles.
- After the time allotted for washing dishes (controlled by the processor), the rinsing mode is activated.
- In this mode, water is supplied from the main sprayer, which is located under the basket with dishes. Powerful jets of water, directed in different directions, wash away the remains of pollution.
- The process is cyclical – the water is filtered, detergent is added to it, and it enters the sprinkler again. This is the final removal of impurities. The number of cycles depends on the selected program.
- After the end of the rinsing mode (controlled by the processor), a command is given to drain the dirty water. The pump pumps it out of the tank.
- A small portion of water is pumped in to rinse the tank, then removed again.
- Water for rinsing is collected. It is fed into the sprayer, which sprays it in different directions, washing the dishes from all sides. The rinsing process can be repeated several times.
- Waste water from the tank is pumped into the sewer.
- The drying mode is activated. It all depends on the type of dishwasher. If there is a drying mode, heaters that heat the air are turned on. Heated air is forced into the chamber with the help of a fan. If there is no such mode, the dishwasher simply turns off – dishes dry due to convection.
As you can see, a large number of sensors are involved in the process. All of them can fail and cause a breakdown. Filters, nozzles, sprinklers can also get clogged. All these are reasons for failure.
Breakdowns, causes, elimination
Many dishwasher breakdowns are rectified by simple steps. Often, problems are associated with low voltage in the electrical network or low pressure in the water supply. A lot of breakdowns are explained by the fact that filters, grates, holes are clogged with leftover food. All these reasons can be eliminated on your own.
We check at the very beginning
Many malfunctions of dishwashers are explained by simple reasons – voltage drop in the network, insufficient water pressure, clogged filters, etc. At the very beginning, after discovering that the dishwasher does not work or works with deviations, we check:
- The voltage should be 220 V with a small deviation.
- Cord condition. If there are visible problems, check the integrity of the cord.
- Is there a cold water supply? Shut off the water with a valve, disconnect the supply hose from the machine, check the condition of the filter, clean it if necessary.
- Is the door closed? If the door closing sensor did not work, then the programs will not start. Sometimes it helps to push the door with your hand until the relay is activated (a characteristic click is heard).
These are very simple actions, but it is for these reasons that the dishwasher often does not work.
Some dishwasher malfunctions are related to water leakage. Then the dishwasher stops during operation and no longer responds to commands. One of the combinations that signal a breakdown also flashes, but they are different for each manufacturer and even for each model. But the result is the same – during the washing process (it doesn’t matter at which stage) the machine stops and no longer responds to any signals. Sometimes it is possible to start it again. But after switching on, it stops again.
The fact is that there is a leak protection sensor in the pallet – it is a polystyrene float. With the appearance of water in the tray, it rises, the contact closes, which is perceived as an emergency signal. Everything is logical – if water appeared in the tray, then something is wrong. This float prevents flooding of your apartment and neighbors below.
Here are the possible causes of water leaks:
- The dishwasher is not level and the water overflows over the edge of the tank.
- A lot of foam has formed due to using too much detergent. Also, you cannot use a product that is not designed for dishwashers.
- The machine collects too much water – problems with the water level sensor. During the washing process, open the machine door and make sure that the water does not overflow over the edge. If it is too much, replace the sensor.
- The rubber door seal is damaged (loss of elasticity) or the door does not fit the body. This breakdown is easy to track – condensation forms on the underside of the tabletop. Sometimes you can see steam coming out during washing. Solving the problem — adjusting the door hinge or replacing the seal.
- Problems with the leak sensor. The same polystyrene float has risen to the top and does not go down. The contact is permanently closed. Try to force it down or up. Perhaps the return spring has loosened/popped off there. The solution is to replace the float.
Sometimes water leaks in the dishwasher are the result of a leak in one of the parts. Then it is necessary to remove the back wall of the dishwasher, carefully inspect all the details. A current may appear in the hose, the connection has lost its tightness, etc.
There is no shower
There are malfunctions of dishwashers of the opposite nature – water does not drain. There are other reasons. This type of failure is often associated with clogging of the drain hole or hose. Here’s what it can be:
- The drain hose has been pinched or a plug has formed in it from waste.
- The drain hole is clogged. Unscrew the protective net, pull out the filter sump, clean it and rinse it from food residues.
- The sewer is clogged and the water simply does not flow.
- Leftover food jammed the pump.
If the problem is clogged machines, first of all we clean the drain and filter. Next, remove the pump cover. This is a plastic cover fixed with bolts (bolt). In some brands, it is fixed with latches. We clean the impeller and impellers (holes for spraying water). In general, we remove all residues and pollution that come into contact with the eyes. The cleaner the car is, the less likely the next stop will be.
If you are repairing a dishwasher with your own hands and you have little experience in this business, take pictures of the position of all the parts and parts before you start disassembling the unit. So it is easier to collect everything later in the reverse direction.
We put everything in place, turn on the car. The water drain should resume. If not, the pump may be the cause. It does not pump water and should be replaced.
No water or little water is collected
Malfunctions of dishwashers are often related to water. And one of them is not enough water. It may also be that the detergent does not wash off, it does not rinse well. All these dishwasher malfunctions can be caused by insufficient pressure. It is checked first. The pressure in the system must be higher than the minimum threshold at which the dishwasher can be operated (these data are in the passport). If the pressure is normal, there may be other reasons for this breakdown:
- The faucet on the drain to the dishwasher broke. Turn off the water, remove the hose, replace the container, turn on the water. Everything is fine – let’s move on.
- The intake valve is clogged. Unscrew the hose, remove the filter with pliers or tweezers, clean and rinse the filter.
- Clogged water inlets (impellers). Clean them of impurities and salts.
- The valve itself may also be faulty. It must be measured with a tester. If it is faulty, it must be replaced.
- Faulty water sensor in the filling hose. To check, blow hard into the hose. If the valve is working, a click is heard. No, it must be changed.
To make sure that the problem is with the water supply system and not others, pour 4 liters of water into the machine, load some dishes and start. If the machine does not wash, most likely, the malfunction of the dishwasher is related to the control.
Sometimes after some time after the start of operation, you notice that the dishwasher washes the dishes worse. Such malfunctions are usually associated with a violation of operating rules, but there may be technical problems. So, what could be the reasons that the quality of dishwashing has deteriorated:
- Insufficient amount of detergent (happens after purchasing a new detergent).
- Dishes are not stacked correctly.
- The heater has burned out, the water is not heated.
- A clogged filter is a sump (the process is described above).
- Clogged impellers – holes for splashing water. They become overgrown with salts, clogged with remains. Periodically need cleaning.
- The pressure sampling chamber is clogged. It is located next to the drain hole. We unscrew the bolt, pull it out, wash it. We clean the holes into which it is inserted.
Malfunctions of dishwashers associated with the deterioration of the quality of work can also be caused by failures in management. If you have checked all the possible causes and there is no improvement, follow the process. Perhaps you will be able to understand why the dishwasher became worse at washing dishes.
Knocks out the protection machine
Malfunctions of dishwashers related to electricity usually appear after power surges. At the same time, the control “takes off”. Therefore, when installing, it is advisable to take care of installing the stabilizer. If there is nothing in common – for the entire apartment or house, then at least a local one. It can be a low-power unit for connecting a dishwasher, or it can be more powerful, to which you can connect several appliances that have electronic control.
If you have a circuit breaker in the shield when you turn on/start the dishwasher, the reasons may be:
- Burned out heating element.
- Short wiring inside the dishwasher.
- Violated sealing and water gets on the parts.
- Voltage drops in the network.
Determining the exact cause of most of these malfunctions (except for sealing failures) suggests that you can use a multimeter. Take the electrical diagram of the dishwasher, first of all check the state of the fuses, then proceed according to the diagram.
These are probably all the main malfunctions of dishwashers that can be fixed with your own hands. If these measures did not help, you will have to resort to the services of specialists.